Friday, 26 January 2024 22:26

Yet another blog....

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I'm going to start using this news feed as a development blog, to keep people updated with what's happening with upcoming changes, and how development is going in general.

Right now I'm trying to break through a barrier to cycle accurate emulation that no software emulator has done to date. The 68000 processor in the Mega Drive is clocked at around 7.61Mhz, meaning 7,610,000 cycles per second. A single opcode usually takes between 4 and 40 of those cycles to execute, but it can be a lot more than that for MOVEM opcodes, and potentially hundreds for multiply and divide operations. Here's the kicker - the 68000 processor can release the bus to share with other devices, such as for DMA operations from the VDP, or banked memory access from the Z80. The real 68000 processor will respond to bus requests within 2 cycles, or if it's currently actively performing a bus operation itself, at the end of the current bus cycle (4 cycles typically, but can be longer). This means there are around 3,805,000 timing points each second where external requests to obtain the bus need to be checked and responded to in order to get perfect timing accuracy. Right now, Exodus only checks between opcodes, meaning most bus ownership requests are delayed. Most other emulators only synchronise between cores and check for access requests at fixed points, usually thousands of cycles in length. Both are incorrect, and can easily impact timing sensitive code.

There are several challenges in overcoming this barrier. The first is performance. If you want to respond to bus requests accurately within 2 cycles, you need to be checking at 3,805,000 points during execution of your 68000 core for bus access requests each second, and more than that, you need to keep your cores "in sync" so that you don't find out about an access attempt after you've already passed the time when it should have been processed. There is an unavoidable performance hit in doing this. Exodus has a design that aims to minimize that cost, but it will be there. Most of it is already being taken by the platform, hence why Exodus requires more processing power than most (all?) other Mega Drive emulators out there. It was designed to solve these problems, but that means an execution model which has a lot more overhead for synchronisation, because synchronisation is happening a lot more frequently. That's the cost of cycle accurate emulation.

The second barrier is the more annoying one IMO. Your "traditional" emulation core would step through one instruction at a time. If the next instruction is an ADD opcode, you execute it in one go. That's simple, logical. Let's simplify and say it looks something like this:

void AddOpcode(source, target)
	sourceData =;
	targetData =;
	result = sourceData + targetData;

If you now can grant the bus at between 1 to 13 discrete points within the execution of that single opcode though (for ADD this is correct), what does that look like in code? You can't just call a single linear function for that opcode with one entry and return point anymore. You could try and have blocking calls within the function, so that the execution of the AddOpcode function is suspended until the bus is returned... but then you can't do savestates, because how can you save the current execution state and resume it later when you leave a blocked thread like that? You could try and wait for the processor to be between opcodes for a savestate request to be actioned, but what if you have two processors constantly swapping the bus between each other? They might never reach a point where both are between opcodes and all threads are unblocked.

The best way forward is to turn your opcode execution steps into a kind of state machine, where you can step through the opcode one internal step at a time. That makes the code unfortunately more verbose, and much less branch predictor friendly, so slower, but it looks something like this:

bool AddOpcode(source, target, currentStep)
	bool done = false;
	switch (currentStep)
	case 0:
		sourceData =;
	case 1:
		targetData =;
	case 2:
		result = sourceData + targetData;
	case 3:
		done = true;
	return done;

This is what I'm currently working on doing for Exodus. This will give truly 100% perfect timing accuracy for the CPU cores, which will be essential when expansions like the MegaCD and 32x come along, which makes the number of bus interactions very complex.

There's actually more to it than this. Part of the work I'm currently doing involves adding perfect handling of DTACK to handle wait cycles during bus access, and group 0 exceptions like bus and address errors, but I'll write more about that at another time.



  • Comment Link Shannon Birt Friday, 12 April 2024 10:30 posted by Shannon Birt

    Thankyou for your work, it is appreciated greatly.
    I find exodus is my goto environment for very difficult debugging due to many features lacking in other emulators. Hopefully at some stage you also add KLog support as I find thats the main thing I miss.
    Not too worried about cpu cost , better accuracy with great debugging tools is my primary need.
    Good luck !!

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